The way to go: what are the challenges of the Glasgow CoP-26 summit
As world leaders come together to define the next course of action for the planet in the face of the extreme consequences of climate change, talking points are increasing. The summit of the Conference of the Parties (CoP-26) will be held in Glasgow, Scotland from October 31.
During the 13-day summit, leaders and heads of state will come together amid growing warnings from around the world as floods, relentless rainfall, drought and uncontrollable volcanoes roar. The meeting will set the course for the next decade, which is critical to controlling the 1.5 degree Celsius rise in temperature, which could harm the planet’s survival.
The summit comes weeks after the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) where scientists and experts warned of imminent action to save the planet. As the meeting draws near, here is everything that can be discussed in Glasgow.
REDUCING EMISSIONS AS A PRIORITY
Uncontrolled emissions are one of the main factors behind global warming and climate change. Countries agreed to cut greenhouse gas emissions to limit global warming to 2 degrees Celsius and ideally 1.5 degrees Celsius at the Paris Climate Summit. CoP-26 could refocus the agenda on the need to halve emissions by 2030 and achieve net zero by mid-century.
A leaked project from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) said it is important for carbon dioxide emissions to peak before 2025, then reach net zero between 2050 and 2075. The project further highlighted the fact that the top 10 percent of the world’s emitters, who are the richest 10 percent, contributing between 36 and 45 percent of emissions, 10 times more than the bottom 10 percent .
Emissions have been identified as one of the main causes of climate change. (Photo: Reuters)
Meanwhile, the report itself has identified human-made emissions as one of the main contributors to climate change. A UN analysis of new or revised NDCs submitted by the end of July found that by 2030, 113 countries would collectively reduce their emissions by 12% from 2010 levels. But the available NDCs from 191 parts of the world Combined Paris Agreement equates to a 16% increase in greenhouse gas emissions in 2030 compared to 2010.
MORE CLIMATE ACTION FUND
Tackling climate change will have to be a collective effort of all countries, however, it will be a financial burden for middle and low income countries. While developed countries have agreed to raise $ 100 billion a year by 2020 to help developing countries cope with the impacts of climate change, the target has not been met.
At the recent UNGA in New York, UN chief and British Prime Minister Boris Johnson called on developed countries to foot the bill and do more for climate action. Johnson and Guterres have urged world leaders in major economies, including the United States, to meet their commitments to a $ 100 billion a year climate fund.
Climate change is triggering extreme events around the world. (Photo: AP)
John Kerry, US climate envoy, said the country will provide more climate assistance ahead of the CoP-26 climate change conference from October 31 to November 12. Data from the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) shows that in 2019, governments in developed countries raised $ 79.6 billion for vulnerable countries, up 2% from 78.3 billion. billion dollars in 2018, but below the targeted 100 billion dollars.
Phasing out of fossil fuels
One of the biggest challenges in the fight against climate change is the global dependence on fossil fuels for energy and electricity. UK CoP-26 Chairman Alok Sharma has said he wants this conference to be the one where coal power is made in history. The UN has called for the phase-out of coal by 2030 in OECD countries, but environment ministers from the Group of 20 major economies have failed to agree on a calendar.
China had recently shown a silver lining by announcing that the country would not build new coal-fired power projects abroad. Beijing has come under criticism for funding coal overseas, and diplomatic pressure has increased to shut down its finances, which could make it easier for the world to stay on course to meet the goals of the deal. Bets on the climate.
The summit of the Conference of the Parties (CoP-26) will be held in Glasgow, Scotland from October 31. (Representative image)
The UN will be eager to steer the conversation towards a fossil-fuel-free economy, as it advocates for solar and wind power.
RETURN ON THE PARIS AGREEMENT
World leaders could discuss Article 6 of the Paris Agreement, which covers the role of carbon markets. Agreement on Article 6 would allow countries to meet part of their national mitigation targets through the use of “market mechanisms”. Market mechanisms provide flexible instruments to reduce the costs of reducing emissions, such as carbon markets.
The article calls for “robust accounting” to avoid “double counting” of emission reductions. It also aims to establish a central United Nations mechanism to trade carbon credits from emission reductions generated by low carbon projects.